相片

Photographer's Note

The Temple of Poseidon at Sounion has evolved with time.
It illustrates how architecture and setting combined dramatically on the site.
A temple dedicated to Poseidon at Sounion has overlooked the Aegean since the early fifth century BC. Built on the foundations of the original, the temple we see today is Doric style, dating from the Classical period. It is an example of how the Greeks skilfully married their architecture with the landscape that surrounded it to make a meaningful and dramatic sacred statement.

Layout of the Temple Precinct
The archaeological remains of the sacred precinct are at the southernmost point of the Sounion peninsular. They consists of the temple, which was situated at the highest , most southerly point of the temenos; the Propylaia or gateway to the site and the stoas which were used for accommodating pilgrims.
Entrance to the site via the propylaia was from the north. A grand structure of marble and poros, it had a pediment roof and was divided into 3 entrances. Visitors were guided up to the temple through the gateways via pathways that were divided from each other by Doric columns. The middle pathway was a ramp for animals and wheeled vehicles. The two pathways flanking it were for pedestrians.
The stoa marked the northern and western sides of the temenos. The column bases of the northern colonnades remain on the site in their original positions.

Design of the Temple
The surviving Temple of Poseidon was built between 444-440 BC on the debris of the earlier temple. Marble form local mines replaced the poros previously used.
The Doric temple is 31.12metres long and 13.47 metres wide and is the undisputable focal point of Sounion, whether it is viewed from land or sea. It was constructed with several unique features, as was the nearby temple of Athena.
Firstly, the temples metopes, which ran around the outside of the temple as a base strip between the pediment and columns was unadorned. The frieze usually found here was instead running above the columns and wall inside the pronaos (the ︾orch created by the outside colonnade and the interior wall of the temple). Secondly, the cella or interior of the temple had no internal colonnade to divide it.
The frieze decoration of the temple has been identified by archaeologists as originating from the Cyclades. Depicting the myths of the Giants and Centaurs and the adventures of Theseus, they can be found preserved in the Lavrion museum. Of the pediment decor, little remains except for the torso of a seated female figure.

Interplay between Buildings and Landscape
The elevated situation of the temple was exaggerated by building it on a raised platform so that the temple became a nexus connecting sea, sky and land. It was central to every visual axis whereas specific landscape views only came into play one at a time, depending on the direction of viewing.
When outside the temenos, the northern stoa hid the platform so that all could be seen were the temple columns rising to meet the sky. The land seems to fall away from the rising columns. The sea at this point is not visible.
However, as the viewer entered the temenos through the propylaia, the barriers of the temenos would slowly fall away revealing views of the sea which gradually became the backdrop of the temple. Once at the front of the temple, the total dramatic interplay between landscape and architecture could be fully appreciated. The viewer would be confronted by the overwhelming sight of the sea, with the temple poised as an actual and metaphoric barrier between the worshipper and Poseidon.

http://archaeological-buildings.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_temple_of_poseidon

Nobody has marked this note useful

Photo Information
Viewed: 1806
Points: 4
Discussions
  • None
Additional Photos by Giorgos Marossis (dim) Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 0 W: 13 N: 511] (3968)
View More Pictures
explore TREKEARTH