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Photographer's Note

Roaring Mountain is found midway between Norris Basin and Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park. It has an elevation of approximately 2260 meters (7400 feet). Many fumaroles - vents or cracks in the ground from which steam escapes into the air - appear on the side of Roaring Mountain. The steam results from ground water in the region being warmed by heat from the magma in the Yellowstone Cauldera. The number of fumaroles has decreased since the beginning of the twentieth century. There is very little vegetation growing in the affected area.

Geology
Roaring Mountain is formed of rhyolite, a volcanic rock that contains 70-75% silica (SiO2). This mountain is a small area in a larger rhyolite ridge, that occurs about 8 kilometers (5 miles) north of the present Yellowstone caldera. The rhyolite at Roaring Mountain formed from a volcanic eruption that occurred sometime during the Pinedale Glaciation (approximately 30,000 to 12,000 years ago).

Geochemistry
Roaring Mountain occurs in one of the hottest parts of Yellowstone National Park. This might be because the magma is closer to the surface here than in other locations. It is estimated that the magma is 1.6 to 3.2 kilometers below the surface (one to two miles). As snow and rainwater percolates down through fractures in the rocks, the warmth from the magma heats it up. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from the magma dissolves in the water. The hot now acidic - water rises back up to the surface. It dissolves the rhyolite rock, removing the minerals and leaving behind an aluminum-rich clay called kaolinite. The acidic water forms steaming fumaroles and runs off the mountain.

Microbial Ecology
Chemotrophic organisms those that use chemicals for a source of energy - can be found close to the vents. Vivid green photosynthesizing algae can be found further downstream in the highly acidic runoff. Photosynthesizing organisms, or phototrophs, utilize solar energy as their source of energy.

Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a chemotropic archaea found at Roaring Mountain. Archaea are single-celled microorganisms that lack a nuclei. This particular organism was first found in Yellowstone National Park by Thomas D. Brock and colleagues in the late 1960s. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is colorless, in a spherical form with lobes. It likes high heat and sulfur. Its ideal temperature is

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Photo Information
  • Copyright: Bob DeMay (BOBDEMAY2) (83)
  • Genre: 地方
  • Medium: 彩色
  • Date Taken: 2011-09-13
  • Categories: 自然
  • Camera: Nikon D100
  • Exposure:1/125 seconds
  • More Photo Info: view
  • Photo Version:Original Version
  • Date Submitted: 2011-09-22 5:53
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